by Joyelle McSweeney on Feb.21, 2011
A key factor of the necropastoral for me is not just the way it manifests the infectiousness, anxiety, and contagion occultly present in the hygienic borders of the classical pastoral— ie the most celebrity resident of Arcadia is Death—but also its activity, its networking, its paradoxical proliferation, its self-digestive activity, its eructations, its necroticness, its hunger and its hole making, which configures a burgeoning textual tissue defined by holes, a tissue thus as absent as it is present, and therefore not absent, not present—protoplasmic, spectral. In the next couple posts I want to look at three phenomena: Wilfred Owen’s War Poetry, Christian Hawkey’s Ventrakl, and WikiLeaks– to try to think about how the necropastoral stages networks and ‘strange meetings’.
My hypothesis is that the strange meetings in the necropastoral eat away at the model of literary lineage that depends on separation, hierarchy, before-and-after, on linearity itself; simultaneously, the ‘strange meeting’ could be considered as one of the necropastoral’s political modes. The strange meeting of Lady Gaga and Julian Assange, the strange meeting of Cairo, Egypt and Madison, Wisconsin!
Continue reading “Strange (Political) Meetings in the Necropastoral: Owen, Hawkey, WikiLeaks” »
by Joyelle McSweeney on Jan.31, 2011
In a word, Yes.
When I reframe the pastoral—already a defunct, anachronistic, dead, imperial and imperialistic literary form—as a necropastoral, I am calling attention to the excesses, intensities, inequalities, anachronisms, morbidities already implicit in a genre contrived to represent separation, quarantine, timelessness, stasis, protection from upset and death.
The necropastoral exposes the pastoral as saturated with the counterfeit, with anachronism, with death: counterfeit in that it was an urbane and courtly form supposedly trading on rustic and agrarian simplicity; anachronistic as it purported to embody a both an earlier Golden Age and a continual present tense, just adjacent to courtly, urban or imperial time; and deathly in that it was a twin or doppelganger of the Afterlife. Arcadia’s most famous resident, after all, is Death himself; Death says “I” in Arcadia. [Death says, “ego”; Death says “I’ll be your mirror.”]
Finally, the term ‘necropastoral’ trades on the adjacency of the pastoral to infection, political upset, plagues, the pastoral as the space into which fictional courtiers travel in the time of plague, carrying the plague of fiction with it. The contamination of the (fictive) pastoral with the (fictive) urbane creates the plague of literature. The necropastoral allows that contamination to metastasize, refuses to hold the line back on chaos, infection, decay.
So the term ‘necropastoral’ hypertrophies the morbid, counterfeit nature of the classical pastoral, while breeding mutant lilacs out of the dead plague ground of later models. Necropastoral seeks to activate these suppressed aspects of pastoral—the necrotized, the infectious, the counterfeit , the pastoral as a site not of separation but of deadly traffic, not of a wall but a membrane, not an idyll but an unstable compact, not a place of simplicity but of the worst intentions. Where classical pastoral insists on separation and containment, necropastoral posits supersaturation, leaking, countercontamination. Our contemporary understandings of biohazard and ecology activates the specter of necropastoral ; our ravenous media (over-)exposes it; the necropastoral is the toxic double of our eviscerating, flammable contemporary world, where avian flu, swine flu, mad cow disease, toxic contamination via industrial waste, hormones in milk, poisons leaching out of formaldehyde FEMA trailers, have destroyed the idea of the bordered or bounded body and marked the porousness of the human body as its most characteristic quality. The body is a medium for infection, saturation, death. The supersaturated, leaking membrane of the necropastoral is thus politicized by our modern understanding of ecology, globalization, the damage of industrial politics does to bodies. The spectral quality of capitalism, the way money and debt accrues and erodes in damaging patterns, the way damage to bodies is sometimes the first materialization of corporate malfeasance, the occult way capitalism’s distribution systems amplify economic, political, biological damage as it spreads across the globe—this is necropastoral, the lethal double of the pastoral and its fantasy of permanent, separated, rural peace. In emphasizing the counterfeit nature of pastoral, the necropastoral makes visible the fact that nothing is pure or natural, that mutation and evolution are inhuman technologies, that all political assertions of the natural and the pure are themselves moribund and counterfeit, infected and rabid.
Jack Smith’s film “Normal Love” is an infectious example of the necropastoral in this political vector, its inflamed, febrile palate hazily presenting a bunch of heavily costumed, transgendered, downtown urban denizens dressed as screen gods and goddesses and occupying a kind of anachronistic, broken down Hollywood Elysium, featuring spraypainted leaves and cows. The very formlessness of “Normal Love”, the wastefulness of its gratuitous makeup and costumes and use of time and sprawling cast, the expenditure of time involved in its ‘production’ (whole days spent making up the actors and spraypainting the leaves a preferable shade of green), indeed, the absolutely unproductive nature of its production rendered it unmarketable, unsalable, even unnameable. Caught up in its glamour, its Fata Morgana,Smith edited and re-edited this footage for decades, could neither complete the film nor settle on a title; Diane di Prima, who acted in the film, says Normal Love “literally cast a spell on him from which the artist never emerged.” Smith could not extricate himself from the fatal/fetal membrane of this contaminating, mutating, untimely, poorly paced, put-on spectacular, this entirely gorgeous, entirely gratuitous necropastoral.
Ariana Reinas’s The Cow might be another; in both works, the damaged, mutated body cannot help producing lyric beauty like another kind of engorgement, another kind of sepsis, another kind of eruption, another kind of leak.
And so are Raul Zurita’s plangeant, particulate necro-epics, which expose the landscape of Chile as a mass grave and piece together particulated, aerated voices, bodies, testimonies, the living, the ghostly, and the dead, not into rehumanized sovereign forms but into a membranous, inter-penetrating, fluxing, supersaturated, hyperanimated radiant hyperfabric (-ation).
by Joyelle McSweeney on Jan.14, 2011
In my last post, I thought about Jack Smith’s Normal Love as an exemplar of the ‘necropastoral’, a term which denaturalizes the pastoral by focusing on its always/already unnatural qualities. In its classical form, the pastoral is a kind of membrane on the urban, an artificial, counterfeit, impossible, anachronistic version of an alternative world that is actually the urban’s double, contiguous, and thus both contaminatory and ripe for contamination, a membrane which, famously, Death (and Art) can easily traverse (Hence, Et in Arcadia Ego).
I’ve started reading through Ariel again, and it’s striking to me the degree to which this text works as necropastoral. Continue reading “Some Versions of the Necropastoral: Plath's Ariel” »
by Joyelle McSweeney on Jan.13, 2011
The Pastoral, like the occult, has always been a fraud, a counterfeit, an invention, an anachronism. However, as with the occult, and as with Art itself, the fraudulence of the pastoral is in direct proportion to its uncanny powers. A double of the urban, but dressed in artful, nearly ceremental rags and pelts, the Pastoral is outside the temporal and geographical sureties of the court, the urbs, the imperium itself, but also, implicitly, adjacent to all of these, entailing an ambiguous degree of access, of cross-contamination. (The Pastoral, after all, is the space into which the courtiers must flee in the time of plague, carrying the plague of narrative with them.)Moreover, the anachronistic state of the Pastoral is itself convulsive and self-contaminating, accessing both a Golden Age, a prehistory somehow concurrent with, even adjacent to, the present tense, and a sumptuous and presumptive afterlife, partaking of Elysian geography, weather, and pastimes.
A Velvet Underground.
Rather than maintaining its didactic or allegorical distance, the membrane separating the Pastoral from the Urban, the past from the future, the living from the dead, may and must supersaturated, convulsed, and crossed. This membrane is Anachronism itself.
Another name for it is Death, or Media.